- Is anxious, withdrawn, agitated, evasive, depressed or suicidal.
- Shows fear of caregiver; behaviour changes when caregiver enters/leaves room.
- Is frail or cognitively impaired and presenting for emergency treatment alone or without regular caregiver.
- Sudden/unexpected change in social habits.
- Sudden/unexpected change in residence or living arrangements.
- Unexplained or sudden inability to pay bills, account withdrawals, changes in the will or Power of Attorney, or disappearance of possessions.
- Refusal to spend money without consulting caregiver.
- Claims of being “accident-prone”.
- Missed/cancelled appointments, especially medical appointments.
- Sudden/unexpected decline in health or cognitive ability.
- Decline in personal hygiene; skin ulcers.
- Dehydration or malnutrition; sudden/rapid weight loss.
- Signs of over/under-medication.
- Suspicious injuries: bruising in various stages of healing; on the face or eye area, the inner part of the thighs or arms, or around the wrists or ankles.
- Sexually-transmitted disease; itching, pain or bleeding in genital area; difficulty sitting or walking.
- Unexplained delay in seeking treatment.
- Denial in view of obvious injury.
- Previous reports of similar injury.
- Explanation of injury or condition: inappropriate to type/degree; vague or bizarre; conflicting explanations from elder and caregiver.
- Poor living conditions in comparison to assets.
- Inappropriate or inadequate clothing.
- Lack of food.
- Lack of required medical aids, functional aids, or medications.
- Evidence of locks or restraints.
- Living in worse conditions than others in the home.
- Involuntary separation from others in the home, friends or other family members.
CAREGIVER (Family, Friend, Paid Caregiver)
- Is verbally aggressive, insulting or threatening toward elder.
- Shows unusual amount of concern over elder (either too little or too much)
- Speaks for elder; does not permit the elder’s involvement in making decisions.
- Is reluctant to leave elder alone with professional.